Caroline is a PhD Student at the University of San Diego's Leadership Studies program. Her areas of interest include ethical leadership and organizational culture.

The Military Hierarchy Experience: Enlisted Members Making Sense of Ethical Issues (2023)

(pending publication in The International Journal of Ethical Leadership 

A qualitative study of US military enlisted or formerly enlisted members found that their view of ethical leadership issues focused on low-level leadership failures resulting from lack of mid-level oversight, rather than a view that high-level leaders were to blame. This suggests the need for enhancing ethical development at the mid- and lower-levels into an organization’s ethics strategy. Findings also indicated a desire for low and mid-level accountability rather than, or in addition to, high-level firings following an unethical incident. The study follows previous findings that ethical leadership behaviors have a positive impact on the workforce, such as influencing work engagement (Vogelgesang, et al., 2013), organizational identity (O’Keefe, et al., 2019), and organizational citizenship behavior (O’Keefe, et al., 2018). 

Who Governs Transnational NGOs? (2023) (Academy of Management)

Pandemic Preparedness for Healthcare Workers: Cross-cultural factors of Non-Illness Absenteeism (2013). A systematic review of literature on risk of healthcare worker absenteeism during a pandemic to identify why healthcare workers may not report to work during a pandemic and formulate organizational responses to encourage work attendance. Findings were that a lack of knowledge and lack of risk communication were  likely predictors of non-illness absenteeism during a pandemic. Discussion: How can healthcare facilities support workers and encourage attendance? What topics should be in employee education programs?

Slow Cultural Change in the US Coast Guard: Decisions to Prioritize the Structural Frame over the Human Resource Frame in Addressing Sexual Assault, Harassment, and Retaliation. Although the Coast Guard has begun to incorporate human resource methods for addressing sexual assault, harassment, and retaliation, cultural change continues to be slow at all levels of the Coast Guard.

Strengthening the True Self and Healthy False Self after Military Service. Due to the rigidity of life in the military, when service members leave the military and re-enter the non-military environment as veterans, it is almost as if many need an opportunity to relearn their True Self and healthy False Self to respond genuinely and appropriately to the world around them. Applying Donald Winnicott’s theories of development, which include using a transition object and holding environment to develop the various selves, may help facilitate a healthy transition out of the military and into the civilian world. 

Military “transition” or “recovery?”: Three basic human needs to support the process.